Human ecology
A bioenergetic representation of life

Living cells possess and maintain chemical gradients across their cell membranes. The chemical gradients include:

The proton gradient can be derived from various sources, although mainly as either a photon flux or a chemical potential. A chemical potential is only available to an organism if it can catalyse a reaction that results in a proton gradient.

Chemical gradients can be produced by thermal gradients but how? Differences in the melting and boiling points of elements look interesting.

Reference: Nichols & Ferguson (1992)

Created 3/10/98
Last modified 9/4/01