Articles 1985 - 1989

  • Cairns, D.K., Montevecchi, W.A. & Threlfall, W. (1989) "Researcher's guide to Newfoundland seabird colonies" Memorial U. Nfld. Occas. Pap. Biol. 14:1-34
  • Harris, M.P. (1989) "Variation in the correction factor used for converting counts of individual Guillemots Uria aalge into breeding pairs" Ibis 131(1):85-93
  • Harris M.P., & Wanless, S. (1989) "Fall colony attendance and breeding success in the common murre" The Condor 91(1):139-146
  • 1988

  • Cairns, D.K. (1988) "Seabirds as monitors of marine food supplies" Biol. Oceanogr. 5(4):261-271
  • Harris M.P., & Wanless, S. (1988) "The breeding biology of Guillemots Uria aalge on the Isle of May over a six year period" Ibis 130(2):172-192
  • Hatchwell, B.J. (1988) "Intraspecific variation in extra-pair copulation and mate defence in Common Guillemots Uria aalge" Behaviour 107:157-185
    [notes] Extra-pair copulation (EPC) in common guillemots was frequent during the pre-laying period. Although guillemots are essentially monogamous, males adopted a mixed reproductive strategy (MRS) by attempting to obtain forced extra-pair copulations (FEPC) during the female's fertile period, which was estimated to start 25 days prior to laying. Males spent more time at the colony than females and exhibited highly synchronized cycles of attendance during the pre-laying period in order to defend their partner against EPC attempts. By doing so they probably incurred some energetic cost. Pair copulation started as soon as the adults returned to the colony (4-5 months before the start of egg-laying), when it probably serves a pair-bonding function. From about 25 days before egg-laying (day -25) the PC rate increased, peaking at about day -12. It was estimated that guillemots copulated 22 times in the three weeks prior to egg-laying. The FEPC rate increased towards egg-laying and was more closely correlated with date than with the relative number of males present, although the number of males involved in each FEPC attempt increased towards laying. During the fertile period, 10% of all observed copulation attempts were FEPCs. However, the success rate (the proportion achieving cloacal contact) of FEPCs was much lower (6%) than that of PCs (74%). Females also employed an MRS, occasionally soliciting or co-operating in unforced extra-pair copulations (UEPCs) when their male partner was absent from the colony. UEPCs were much more successful (95%) than FEPCs, but also less frequent. The effect of breeding density on copulation behaviour was examined. FEPCs were more frequent at high breeding densities than at low density. The probability of obtaining FEPC insemination for males with two or more neighbours was about ten times that of males with no neighbours. Similarly, the risk of cuckoldry increased with density. Three hypotheses were considered concerning the effect of density on the PC rate: the 'dilution' hypothesis predicted a higher PC rate at high density, and the 'disguise' and 'interference' hypotheses predicted a lower PC rate at high breeding density. The PC rate decreased with increasing density as a result of disruption of PCs by neighbouring males attempting to obtain FEPCs, a result consistent with the 'interference' hypothesis. The reproductive success of males obtaining EPCs, cuckolded males, and non-EPC/non-cuckold males was examined, and a selective advantage of 10% estimated for successful EPC males over cuckolds.
  • Hatchwell, B.J. (1988) "Population biology and coloniality of common guillemots Uria aalge" PhD Thesis, University of Sheffield
    British Library EThOS: Thesis Details
  • Livezey, B.C. (1988) "Morphometrics of flightlessness in the Alcidae" The Auk 105:681-698
  • Rothery, P., Wanless, S. & Harris M.P. (1988) "Analysis of counts from monitoring Guillemots in Britain and Ireland" Journal of Animal Ecology 57:1-19
  • Sitters, H.P. (1988) "Tetrad atlas of the breeding birds of Devon" Devon Birdwatching and Preservation Society
  • Wanless, S. & Harris M.P. (1988) "The Importance of Relative Laying Date on Breeding Success of the Guillemot Uria aalge" Ornis Scandinavica 19(3):205-211
  • Wanless, S., Harris, M.P., & Morris, J.A. (1988) "The effect of radio transmitters on the behavior of common murres and razorbills during chick rearing" The Condor 90(4):816-823
  • 1987

  • Birkhead, T.R., Atkin, L. & Møller, A.P. (1987) "Copulation behaviour of birds" Behaviour 101(2):101-139
    [notes] Inter-specific variation in copulation behaviour among birds is described. The following factors explaining variation in copulation rate are examined: (i) the number of eggs which have to be fertilized (the fertilization hypothesis), (ii) the importance of the pair-bond (the social bond hypothesis), (iii) predation risk during copulation (the predation hypothesis), and (iv) cuckoldry risk (the sperm competition hypothesis). These hypotheses were investigated in preliminary analyses at the generic level using data on copulation behaviour in 131 bird species. The sperm competition hypothesis was supported by several lines of evidence: (i) frequent copulations among genera where males are not able to guard their mates (colonial birds, diurnal birds of prey, and owls), (ii) frequent copulations in polyandrous genera, (iii) copulations inside hole-nests of colonial birds but outside the hole-nests of solitarily nesting genera, and (iv) by the occurrence of forced pair copulations following extra-pair copulation in some species. The predation and social bond hypotheses were not totally dismissed, but there was no evidence that fertilization ability was limited by copulation frequency (i.e. the fertilization hypothesis).
  • Birkhead, T.R. & Nettleship, D.N. (1987) "Ecological relationships between common murres, Uria aalge, and thick-billed murres, Uria lomvia, at the Gannet Islands, Labrador. II. Breeding success and site characteristics" Can. J. Zool. 65:1630-1637
  • Cairns, D.K., Bredin, K.A., & Montevecchi, W.A. (1987) "Activity budgets and foraging ranges of breeding common murres" The Auk 104(2):218-224
  • Davis, M.B, & Guderley, H. (1987) "Energy metabolism in the locomotor muscles of the common murre (Uria aalge) and the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica)" The Auk 104(4):733-739
  • Mudge, G.P., Aspinall, S.J. & Crooke, C.H. (1987) "A photographic study of seabird attendance at Moray Firth colonies outside the breeding season" Bird Study 34:28-36
  • Pennycuick, C.J. (1987) "Flight of auks (Alcidae) and other northern seabirds compared with southern procellariforms" J. Exp. Biol. 128:335-347
  • Sanger, G.A. (1987) "Winter diets of common murres and marbled murrelets in Kachemak Bay, Alaska" The Condor 89(2):426-430
  • 1986

  • Birkhead, T.R., Goodburn, S.F. & Hatchwell, B.J. (1986) "Feeding Ecology of Common Guillemot Chicks on Lundy" Annual Report of the Lundy Field Society 1985 36:25-26
    Annual Report of the Lundy Field Society 1985 36
  • Burger, A.E., & Simpson, M. (1986) "Diving Depths of Atlantic Puffins and Common Murres" The Auk 103(4):828-830
  • Harris M.P., & Wanless, S. (1986) "A comparison of the biology of the normal and bridled forms of the Common Guillemot Uria aalge at a single colony" J. Zool. (Lond.) 210(1):121-130
  • Murphy, E.C., Springer, A.M. & Roseneau, D.G. (1986) "Population status of Common Guillemots Uria aalge at a colony in western Alaska: results and simulations" Ibis 128(3):348-363
  • Wanless, S. & Harris, M.P. (1986) "Time spent at the colony by male and female guillemots Uria aalge and Razorbills Alca torda" Bird Study 33:168-176
  • 1985

  • Birkhead, T.R., Johnson, S.D. & Nettleship, D.N. (1985) "Extra-pair matings and mate guarding in the Common Murre Uria aalge" Anim. Behav. 33:608-619
  • Birkhead, T.R. & Nettleship, D.N. (1985) "Ecological relationships between alcids breeding at the Gannet Clusters, Labrador" Can. Wildl. Serv., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
  • Birkhead, T.R. & Nettleship, D.N. (1985) "Plumage variation in young Razorbills and murres" J. Field Ornithol. 56(3):246-250
  • Blake, B.F., Dixon, T.J., Jones, P.H. & Tasker, M.L. (1985) "Seasonal changes in the feeding ecology of Guillemots (Uria aalge) off north and east Scotland" Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 20:559-568
  • Harris, M.P. & Wanless, S. (1985) "Fish fed to young guillemots, Uria aalge, and used in display on the Isle of May, Scotland" J. Zool. Lond. 207:441-458
  • Hope Jones, P. & Rees, E.I.S. (1985) "Appearance and behaviour of immature Guillemots and Razorbills" British Birds 78:370-377
  • Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) "The Atlantic Alcidae: The Evolution, Distribution and Biology of the Auks Inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean and Adjacent Water Areas" Academic Press, London 574pp
    1. Bedard, J. (1985) "Evolution and Characteristics of the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.1-51
    2. Nettleship, D.N. & Evans, P.G.H. (1985) "Distribution and Status of the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.53-154
    3. Harris, M.P. & Birkhead, T.R. (1985) "Breeding Ecology of the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.155-204
    4. Birkhead, T.R. & Harris, M.P. (1985) "Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.205-231
    5. Hudson, P.J. (1985) "Population Parameters for the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.233-261
    6. Bradstreet, M.S.W. & Brown, R.G.B. (1985) "Feeding Ecology of the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.263-318
    7. Gaston, A.J. (1985) "Development of the Young in the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.319-354
    8. Birkhead, T.R. (1985) "Coloniality and social behaviour in the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.355-382
    9. Brown, R.G.B. (1985) "The Atlantic Alcidae at Sea" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.383-426
    10. Evans, P.G.H. & Nettleship, D.N. (1985) "Conservation of the Atlantic Alcidae" In: Nettleship, D.N. & Birkhead, T.R. eds. (1985) pp.427-488
  • Piatt, J.F., & Nettleship, D.N. (1985) "Diving depths of four Alcids" The Auk 102(2):293-297
  • Strauch, J.G.Jr. (1985) "The phylogeny of the Alcidae" The Auk 102:520-539