1. Cook, A.S.C.P., Robinson, R.A. & Ross-Smith, V.H., (2014) "Development of MSFD Indicators, Baselines and Target for Seabird Breeding Failure Occurrence in the UK (2012)" JNCC Report 539, ISSN 0963 8901
    http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-7045
  2. Cook, A. S. C. P., Dadam, D. & Robinson, R. A., (2014) "Development of MSFD Indicators, Baselines and Target for the Annual breeding Success of Kittiwakes in the UK (2012)" JNCC Report 538, ISSN 0963 8901
    http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-7044
  3. Büche, B.I., Stubbings, E.M., Boyle, D., Perrins, C.M., & Yates, L. (2013) "Seabird monitoring on Skomer Island in 2013" JNCC Report No.XXX

  4. Taylor, C.J., Boyle, D., Perrins, C.M. & Kipling, R. (2012) "Seabird monitoring on Skomer Island in 2012" JNCC Report No.XXX

  5. Limborg, M.T., Pedersen, J.S., Hemmer-Hansen, J., Tomkiewicz J. & Bekkevold, D. (2009) "Genetic population structure of European sprat Sprattus sprattus: differentiation across a steep environmental gradient in a small pelagic fish" Mar Ecol Prog Ser 379:213-224
    Factors such as oceanographic retention, isolation by distance and secondary contact zones have, among others, been suggested to explain the low, but statistically significant, neutral population structure observed in many marine fishes. European sprat Sprattus sprattus L. is not known to display philopatric spawning behaviour or to exhibit local retention of eggs and larvae. It thus constitutes a good model for studying population structure in a characteristic small pelagic fish with high dispersal potential and an opportunistic life history. We analysed 931 specimens of sprat from 9 spawning locations in and around the North Sea and Baltic Sea area and from a geographically distant population from the Adriatic Sea. Analyses of 9 microsatellite loci revealed a sharp genetic division separating samples from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea (pairwise θ = 0.019 to 0.035), concurring with a steep salinity gradient. We found, at most, weak structure among samples within the northeastern Atlantic region and within the Baltic Sea (pairwise θ = 0.001 to 0.009). The Adriatic Sea population was highly differentiated from all northern samples (pairwise θ = 0.071 to 0.092). Overall, the observed population structure resembles that of most other marine fishes studied in the North and Baltic Sea areas. Nevertheless, spatially explicit differences are observed among species, probably reflecting specific life histories. Such fine-scale population structures should be taken into account when considering complex ecosystem functions, e.g. in multispecies stock management. KEY WORDS: European sprat, Population structure, Environmental gradients, Interspecific comparison, Salinity, Marine fishes, Microsatellite DNA
    http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps07889
  6. Behrens, J.W. & Steffensen, J.F. (2007) "The effect of hypoxia on behavioural and physiological aspects of lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus, 1785)" Mar Biol 150:1365-1377
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0456-4
  7. Seed, A.M., Clayton, N.S. & Emery, N.J. (2007) "Postconflict Third-Party Affiliation in Rooks, Corvus frugilegus" Current Biology 17:152-158
    [notes]
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.11.025
  8. Dransfeld, L., Dwane, O., McCarney, C., Kelly, C.J., Danilowicz, B.S. & Fives, J.M. (2004) "Larval distribution of commercial fish species in waters around Ireland" Irish Fisheries Investigation No. 13
    In April 2000 a base line survey was conducted on the larval distribution of commercial fish species off the west, north and south coasts of Ireland. Ichthyoplankton samples and in situ CTD data were collected, whilst simultaneously capturing remote sensing images of chlorophyll and sea surface temperatures. The survey sampling area covered the Celtic Sea from the Irish south coast to 49°N, the western shelf including the Porcupine Bank and the northern shelf up to the Stanton Bank. The sample grid design was based on the international mackerel & horse mackerel egg survey with station spacings of 0.5° latitude and 0.5° longitude. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected with a Gulf III plankton sampler, which was deployed on oblique tows from the surface to within 5 metres of the bottom (200m max). A self-logging CTD sensor (Promonitor) was attached to the Gulf and recorded depth, temperature and salinity profiles for each deployment. Results from the Promonitor CTD showed that strong temperature and salinity gradients were encountered during the survey. Lowest temperatures coincided with lowest salinity in the North Channel of the Irish Sea while highest salinities and temperatures were found to the south west of Ireland. Thermal fronts were found in the eastern Celtic Sea and on the north west coast of Ireland.The AVHRR images showed a progressive increase in surface temperatures in the Celtic Sea and west of Ireland. Highest surface chlorophyll concentrations were associated with cooler less saline water in the Irish Sea and the coastal areas around Ireland. In the western Celtic Sea surface chlorophyll concentrations increased as the survey progressed to form a phytoplankton bloom towards the end of the survey. Larvae of interest showed distinct distribution patterns, with some species being confined to particular areas or spawning grounds while others were spread over the whole survey area. The survey identified two important larval hotspots: Cod larvae were concentrated in the eastern Celtic Sea, where other gadoid species such as haddock, whiting, pollack and saithe were also found in high numbers. This area is associated with the Celtic Sea front and shows increased primary productivity, which could present a favourable environment for successful larval survival. Stations in the southwest of Ireland sustained high concentrations of hake, megrim and mackerel larvae. The waters with high numbers of these three species stretched from shallow inshore stations to deeper ones along the continental shelf and were characterised by high temperatures and salinities. SeaWIFS satellite images suggest the formation of a phytoplankton bloom within this larval hotspot, which would provide the necessary resources for successful larval growth.

  9. Kaiser, M.J., Bergmann, M., Hinz, H., Galanidi, M., Shucksmith, R., Rees, E.I.S., Darbyshire, T. & Ramsay, K. (2004) "Demersal fish and epifauna associated with sandbank habitats" Estuarine, Coastal and shelf science 60(3):445-456
    A habitat specific survey of the epifauna and fish fauna of sandbanks off the Welsh coastline was undertaken in 2001. Of these, three sandbanks were considered to represent extensions of shallow nearshore soft-sediment communities, while a further six sandbanks were considered to be distinct sandbanks; seabed features clearly defined in comparison with surrounding sediments. Multivariate community analyses revealed that the distinct sandbanks had both fish and epifaunal assemblages that were distinct from those sandbanks considered to be extensions of nearshore sediments. The distinct sandbanks were typified by low species diversity and shared indicator species such as the weever fish Echiichthys vipera, the shrimp Philocheras trispinosus and the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. Differences occurred in species composition among the distinct sandbanks, in particular, southern sandbanks were typified by sand sole Solea lascaris and small-eyed ray Raja microocellata. The sandbanks considered as extensions of nearshore sediments shared many similarities with the Pleuronectes platessa-Limanda limanda assemblage, identified by Ellis et al. (Estuar. Coastal Shelf Sci. 51 (2000) 299), which is widespread in the Irish Sea. Sandbanks, as a habitat definition under the EU habitats directive, are likely to incorporate a number of physically and biologically distinct habitats of which two have been described in the present study. Keywords: sandbank habitat; fish; epifauna; quantitative survey; conservation
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2004.02.005
  10. Wanless, S., Wright, P.J., Harris, M.P. & Elston, D.A. (2004) "Evidence for decrease in size of lesser sandeels (Ammodytes marinus) in a North Sea aggregation over a 30-yr period" Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279:237-246
    Long-term changes in size of the lesser sandeels Ammodytes marinus in the Wee Bankie aggregation in the northwest part of the North Sea were investigated using individuals collected from Atlantic puffins Fratercula arctica feeding chicks. Between 1973 and 2002, the average size, on a given date, of fish hatched that year (0-group) declined by 11.1 mm. Over the same period, older (predominantly 1-group) sandeels showed an overall reduction in size on a given date, of 19.4 mm fish?1. In both cases the change in length corresponded to a 40% decline in energy content. These long-term trends in size-at-age are likely to have had major demographic consequences for this aggregation in terms of delayed sexual maturity and lower age-specific fecundity. While there was no evidence that the decrease was associated with the start of an industrial sandeel fishery in the area in 1990, the observed decline in size-at-age could potentially make this aggregation more vulnerable to collapse because of its reduced capacity to produce eggs. We tentatively suggest that changing environmental conditions from the early 1980s onwards, acting through effects on early growth and/or hatch date, may have contributed to the long-term decline in size of 0-group sandeels in this area. More data are needed to elucidate the reasons for the decline in the size of older sandeels. Keywords: Climate change, Environmental monitoring, North Sea, Industrial fishery, Larval growth rate , Atlantic puffin
    http://dx.doi.org/
  11. Pinnegar, J.K., Jennings, S., O'Brien, C.M. & Polunin, N.V.C. (2002) "Long-Term changes in the trophic level of the Celtic Sea fish community and fish market price distribution" J Appl Ecol 39:370-390
  12. http://dx.doi.org/

  13. Jennings, S., Pinnegar, J.K., Polunin, N.V.C. & Boon, T.W. (2001) " Weak cross-species relationships between body size and trophic level belie powerful size-based trophic structuring in fish communities" J Anim Ecol 70:934-944
    http://dx.doi.org/
  14. Lyngs, P. (2001) "Diet of Razorbill Alca torda chicks on Græsholmen, central Baltic Sea" Dansk Orn. Foren. Tidsskr. 95:69-74
    http://dx.doi.org/
  15. Claridge, P.N., Potter, I.C. & Hardisty, M.W. (1986) "Seasonal changes in movements, abundance, size composition and diversity of the fish fauna of the Severn Estuary" J Mar Biol Ass U.K. 66:229-258
    Extensive sampling of the intake screens of power stations in the Severn Estuary (Berkeley, Oldbury-upon-Severn and Uskmouth) and Bristol Channel (Hinkley Point) yielded a total of 97 species of lampreys, elasmobranchs and teleosts. Data were most comprehensive for Oldbury in the inner estuary where samples of all the fish collected over 24 h were obtained on four occasions in each month between July 1972 and June1977. The Gadidae was the most abundant family at Oldbury, both in terms of numbers of individuals (51934) and species (13). The fifteen most abundant species at Oldbury included two anadromous (river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), twaite shad (Alosafallax)), one catadromous (European eel (Anguilla anguilla)), one estuarine (common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)) and one freshwater species (3-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)). The remaining ten species, which fall within the broad category of estuarine-dependent marine species, contained a large proportion of O+ individuals. This group comprised a species complex consisting of two morphologically very similar sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus lozanoi), which were only separated during one year of the study, and the whiting (Merlangius merlangus), flounder (Platichthys flesus), bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sea snail (Liparis liparis), poor cod (Trisopterus minutus), thin-lipped grey mullet (Liza ramada), herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and bib (Trisopterus luscus). Juveniles of the last nine species took on average between11-15 and 38-42 weeks to enter the shallows in the middle of the inner estuary from their spawning grounds, often having previously passed further up the estuary as postlarvae. These species showed a markedly seasonal pattern of occurrence at Oldbury, with the majority of each usually being collected within distinct two month periods. The number of species, and to an even greater extent the total number of fish, underwent consistent seasonal trends, with maximum and minimum values for the latter occurring between September and January and between March and May respectively. The seasonal trends for species richness (D), Shannon-Wiener (H') and Evenness indices (J) were similar, with maximum and minimum values generally occurring in the winter and summer respectively. A comparison between our data and those of earlier workers indicates that no major change has occurred in the composition of the fish fauna of the Severn Estuary during this century, except for the establishment of two 'northern' species, northern rockling (Ciliata septentrionalis) and Norway pout {Trisopterus esmarkii), during recent times.
    http://dx.doi.org/
  16. Potter, I.C., Claridge, P.N., & Warwick, R.M. (1986) "Consistency of seasonal changes in an estuarine fish assemblage" Mar Ecol Prog Ser 32:217-228
    http://dx.doi.org/
  17. Hislop, J.R.G. & Harris, M.P. (1985) "Recent changes in the food of young Puffins (Fratercula arctica) on the Isle of May in relation to fish stocks" Ibis 127:234-239
  18. Williams, R. & Conway D.V.P. (1984) "Vertical distribution, and seasonal and diurnal migration of Calanus helgolandicus in the Celtic Sea" Marine Biology 79:63-73
    http://dx.doi.org/
  19. Townley, M. & King, P.E. (1979) "The marine fauna of Lundy - ichthyoplankton (fish plankton)" Rep Lundy Fld Soc 30:49-55

  20. Reay, P.J. (1970) "Synopsis of biological data on North Atlantic Sand Eels of the genus Ammodytes: A. tobianus, A. dubius, A. americanus and A. marinus" FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 82

  21. Corbin, P.G. & Vati, V. (1949) "The post-larval sand eels (Ammodytidae) of the Celtic Sea and Plymouth area" J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 28(1):287-313.
    http://dx.doi.org/