1. Brewin, R.J.W., Smale, D.A., Moore, P.J., Dall'Olmo, G., Miller, P.I., Taylor, B.H., Smyth, T.J., Fishwick, J.R. & Yang, M. (2018) "Evaluating Operational AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature Data at the Coastline Using Benthic Temperature Loggers" Remote sensing 10(6)
  2. Riordan, J. & Birkhead, T.R (2018) "Changes in the diet composition of Common Guillemot Uria aalge chicks on Skomer Island, Wales, between 1973 and 2017" Ibis 160:470-474
    [notes] This study documents long-term changes in Common Guillemot Uria aalge chick diet on Skomer Island, Wales, from 1973 to 2017. Chick diet has remained broadly similar (mainly Clupeids) since 1973, although more recently there has been an increase in relatively low-quality prey (Gadids), suggesting a shift in prey availability. Keywords: Auk, Clupeids, chick diet, Gadids, seabirds.
  3. http://dx.doi.org/

  4. Surman, CA, Nicholson, LW & Phillips, RA J Ornithol (2018)
  5. Cox, S.L., Witt, M.J., Embling, C.B., Godley, B.J., Hosegood, P.J., Miller, P.I., Votier, S.C. & Ingram, S.N. (2017) "Temporal patterns in habitat use by small cetaceans at an oceanographically dynamic marine renewables test site in the Celtic Sea" Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 141:178-190
  6. Seguro, I., A. D. Marca, S. J. Painting, J. D. Shutler, D. J. Suggett and J. Kaiser (2017 in press) "High-resolution net and gross biological production during a Celtic Sea spring bloom" Progress in Oceanography
  7. Wakefield, E.D., Owen, E., Baer, J., Carroll, M.J., Daunt, F., Dodd, S.G., Green, J.A., Guilford, T., Mavor, R.A., Miller, P.I., Newell, M.A., Newton, S.F., Robertson, G.S., Shoji, A., Soanes, L.M., Votier, S.C., Wanless, S. & Bolton, M. (2017) "Breeding density, fine-scale tracking and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species" Ecological Applications 27(7):2074-2091
  8. Cox, S.L., Miller, P.I., Embling, C.B., Scales, K.L., Bicknell, A., Hosegood, P.J., Morgan, G., Ingram, S.N. & Votier, S.C. (2016) "Seabird diving behaviour reveals the functional significance of shelf-sea fronts as foraging hotspots" Royal Society Open Science
  9. Cook, A.S.C.P., Robinson, R.A. & Ross-Smith, V.H., (2014) "Development of MSFD Indicators, Baselines and Target for Seabird Breeding Failure Occurrence in the UK (2012)" JNCC Report 539, ISSN 0963 8901
  10. Cook, A. S. C. P., Dadam, D. & Robinson, R. A., (2014) "Development of MSFD Indicators, Baselines and Target for the Annual breeding Success of Kittiwakes in the UK (2012)" JNCC Report 538, ISSN 0963 8901
  11. Büche, B.I., Stubbings, E.M., Boyle, D., Perrins, C.M., & Yates, L. (2013) "Seabird monitoring on Skomer Island in 2013" JNCC Report No.XXX

  12. Taylor, C.J., Boyle, D., Perrins, C.M. & Kipling, R. (2012) "Seabird monitoring on Skomer Island in 2012" JNCC Report No.XXX

  13. Limborg, M.T., Pedersen, J.S., Hemmer-Hansen, J., Tomkiewicz J. & Bekkevold, D. (2009) "Genetic population structure of European sprat Sprattus sprattus: differentiation across a steep environmental gradient in a small pelagic fish" Mar Ecol Prog Ser 379:213-224
    Factors such as oceanographic retention, isolation by distance and secondary contact zones have, among others, been suggested to explain the low, but statistically significant, neutral population structure observed in many marine fishes. European sprat Sprattus sprattus L. is not known to display philopatric spawning behaviour or to exhibit local retention of eggs and larvae. It thus constitutes a good model for studying population structure in a characteristic small pelagic fish with high dispersal potential and an opportunistic life history. We analysed 931 specimens of sprat from 9 spawning locations in and around the North Sea and Baltic Sea area and from a geographically distant population from the Adriatic Sea. Analyses of 9 microsatellite loci revealed a sharp genetic division separating samples from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea (pairwise θ = 0.019 to 0.035), concurring with a steep salinity gradient. We found, at most, weak structure among samples within the northeastern Atlantic region and within the Baltic Sea (pairwise θ = 0.001 to 0.009). The Adriatic Sea population was highly differentiated from all northern samples (pairwise θ = 0.071 to 0.092). Overall, the observed population structure resembles that of most other marine fishes studied in the North and Baltic Sea areas. Nevertheless, spatially explicit differences are observed among species, probably reflecting specific life histories. Such fine-scale population structures should be taken into account when considering complex ecosystem functions, e.g. in multispecies stock management. KEY WORDS: European sprat, Population structure, Environmental gradients, Interspecific comparison, Salinity, Marine fishes, Microsatellite DNA
  14. Behrens, J.W. & Steffensen, J.F. (2007) "The effect of hypoxia on behavioural and physiological aspects of lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus, 1785)" Mar Biol 150:1365-1377
  15. Dransfeld, L., Dwane, O., McCarney, C., Kelly, C.J., Danilowicz, B.S. & Fives, J.M. (2004) "Larval distribution of commercial fish species in waters around Ireland" Irish Fisheries Investigation No. 13
    In April 2000 a base line survey was conducted on the larval distribution of commercial fish species off the west, north and south coasts of Ireland. Ichthyoplankton samples and in situ CTD data were collected, whilst simultaneously capturing remote sensing images of chlorophyll and sea surface temperatures. The survey sampling area covered the Celtic Sea from the Irish south coast to 49°N, the western shelf including the Porcupine Bank and the northern shelf up to the Stanton Bank. The sample grid design was based on the international mackerel & horse mackerel egg survey with station spacings of 0.5° latitude and 0.5° longitude. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected with a Gulf III plankton sampler, which was deployed on oblique tows from the surface to within 5 metres of the bottom (200m max). A self-logging CTD sensor (Promonitor) was attached to the Gulf and recorded depth, temperature and salinity profiles for each deployment. Results from the Promonitor CTD showed that strong temperature and salinity gradients were encountered during the survey. Lowest temperatures coincided with lowest salinity in the North Channel of the Irish Sea while highest salinities and temperatures were found to the south west of Ireland. Thermal fronts were found in the eastern Celtic Sea and on the north west coast of Ireland.The AVHRR images showed a progressive increase in surface temperatures in the Celtic Sea and west of Ireland. Highest surface chlorophyll concentrations were associated with cooler less saline water in the Irish Sea and the coastal areas around Ireland. In the western Celtic Sea surface chlorophyll concentrations increased as the survey progressed to form a phytoplankton bloom towards the end of the survey. Larvae of interest showed distinct distribution patterns, with some species being confined to particular areas or spawning grounds while others were spread over the whole survey area. The survey identified two important larval hotspots: Cod larvae were concentrated in the eastern Celtic Sea, where other gadoid species such as haddock, whiting, pollack and saithe were also found in high numbers. This area is associated with the Celtic Sea front and shows increased primary productivity, which could present a favourable environment for successful larval survival. Stations in the southwest of Ireland sustained high concentrations of hake, megrim and mackerel larvae. The waters with high numbers of these three species stretched from shallow inshore stations to deeper ones along the continental shelf and were characterised by high temperatures and salinities. SeaWIFS satellite images suggest the formation of a phytoplankton bloom within this larval hotspot, which would provide the necessary resources for successful larval growth.
  16. Kaiser, M.J., Bergmann, M., Hinz, H., Galanidi, M., Shucksmith, R., Rees, E.I.S., Darbyshire, T. & Ramsay, K. (2004) "Demersal fish and epifauna associated with sandbank habitats" Estuarine, Coastal and shelf science 60(3):445-456
    A habitat specific survey of the epifauna and fish fauna of sandbanks off the Welsh coastline was undertaken in 2001. Of these, three sandbanks were considered to represent extensions of shallow nearshore soft-sediment communities, while a further six sandbanks were considered to be distinct sandbanks; seabed features clearly defined in comparison with surrounding sediments. Multivariate community analyses revealed that the distinct sandbanks had both fish and epifaunal assemblages that were distinct from those sandbanks considered to be extensions of nearshore sediments. The distinct sandbanks were typified by low species diversity and shared indicator species such as the weever fish Echiichthys vipera, the shrimp Philocheras trispinosus and the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. Differences occurred in species composition among the distinct sandbanks, in particular, southern sandbanks were typified by sand sole Solea lascaris and small-eyed ray Raja microocellata. The sandbanks considered as extensions of nearshore sediments shared many similarities with the Pleuronectes platessa-Limanda limanda assemblage, identified by Ellis et al. (Estuar. Coastal Shelf Sci. 51 (2000) 299), which is widespread in the Irish Sea. Sandbanks, as a habitat definition under the EU habitats directive, are likely to incorporate a number of physically and biologically distinct habitats of which two have been described in the present study. Keywords: sandbank habitat; fish; epifauna; quantitative survey; conservation
  17. Pinnegar, J.K., Jennings, S., O'Brien, C.M. & Polunin, N.V.C. (2002) "Long-Term changes in the trophic level of the Celtic Sea fish community and fish market price distribution" J Appl Ecol 39:370-390
  18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00723.x

  19. Jennings, S., Pinnegar, J.K., Polunin, N.V.C. & Boon, T.W. (2001) " Weak cross-species relationships between body size and trophic level belie powerful size-based trophic structuring in fish communities" J Anim Ecol 70:934-944
  20. Lyngs, P. (2001) "Diet of Razorbill Alca torda chicks on Græsholmen, central Baltic Sea" Dansk Orn. Foren. Tidsskr. 95:69-74
  21. Claridge, P.N., Potter, I.C. & Hardisty, M.W. (1986) "Seasonal changes in movements, abundance, size composition and diversity of the fish fauna of the Severn Estuary" J Mar Biol Ass U.K. 66:229-258
    Extensive sampling of the intake screens of power stations in the Severn Estuary (Berkeley, Oldbury-upon-Severn and Uskmouth) and Bristol Channel (Hinkley Point) yielded a total of 97 species of lampreys, elasmobranchs and teleosts. Data were most comprehensive for Oldbury in the inner estuary where samples of all the fish collected over 24 h were obtained on four occasions in each month between July 1972 and June1977. The Gadidae was the most abundant family at Oldbury, both in terms of numbers of individuals (51934) and species (13). The fifteen most abundant species at Oldbury included two anadromous (river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), twaite shad (Alosafallax)), one catadromous (European eel (Anguilla anguilla)), one estuarine (common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)) and one freshwater species (3-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)). The remaining ten species, which fall within the broad category of estuarine-dependent marine species, contained a large proportion of O+ individuals. This group comprised a species complex consisting of two morphologically very similar sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus lozanoi), which were only separated during one year of the study, and the whiting (Merlangius merlangus), flounder (Platichthys flesus), bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sea snail (Liparis liparis), poor cod (Trisopterus minutus), thin-lipped grey mullet (Liza ramada), herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and bib (Trisopterus luscus). Juveniles of the last nine species took on average between11-15 and 38-42 weeks to enter the shallows in the middle of the inner estuary from their spawning grounds, often having previously passed further up the estuary as postlarvae. These species showed a markedly seasonal pattern of occurrence at Oldbury, with the majority of each usually being collected within distinct two month periods. The number of species, and to an even greater extent the total number of fish, underwent consistent seasonal trends, with maximum and minimum values for the latter occurring between September and January and between March and May respectively. The seasonal trends for species richness (D), Shannon-Wiener (H') and Evenness indices (J) were similar, with maximum and minimum values generally occurring in the winter and summer respectively. A comparison between our data and those of earlier workers indicates that no major change has occurred in the composition of the fish fauna of the Severn Estuary during this century, except for the establishment of two 'northern' species, northern rockling (Ciliata septentrionalis) and Norway pout {Trisopterus esmarkii), during recent times.
  22. Potter, I.C., Claridge, P.N., & Warwick, R.M. (1986) "Consistency of seasonal changes in an estuarine fish assemblage" Mar Ecol Prog Ser 32:217-228
  23. Hislop, J.R.G. & Harris, M.P. (1985) "Recent changes in the food of young Puffins (Fratercula arctica) on the Isle of May in relation to fish stocks" Ibis 127:234-239
  24. Potter, I.C. & Claridge, P.N. (1985) "Seasonal Catches, Size and Meristic Data for Sprat, Sprattus Sprattus, in the Severn Estuary" J Mar Biol Assoc UK 65(3):667-675
    [notes] While the sprat, Sprattus sprattus (L.), may live for up to a total of six years, at the end of which time the total length can exceed 150 mm, the fishery in British waters is based primarily on the second, third and fourth year classes (Robertson, 1936, 1938; De Silva, 1973). Historically, the sprat was a major contributor to the fishery of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary (Matthews, 1933; Lloyd, 1942). Although this fishery has declined during recent decades, the sprat has remained an important component of the teleost fauna of the region. This point is illustrated by the observation that S. sprattus was by far the most abundant of all teleosts in plankton samples taken throughout the Bristol Channel between the spring and autumn of 1974 (Russell, 1980). While length–frequency data were provided by Russell (1980) for these recently spawned sprat and there is comparable information for those sprat which form the basis of the commercial fishery in the Bristol Channel (Lloyd, 1942), no such data are available for those members of the population which are known sometimes to enter the Severn Estuary in considerable numbers (Lloyd, 1941).

  25. Williams, R. & Conway D.V.P. (1984) "Vertical distribution, and seasonal and diurnal migration of Calanus helgolandicus in the Celtic Sea" Marine Biology 79:63-73
  26. Reay, P.J. (1970) "Synopsis of biological data on North Atlantic Sand Eels of the genus Ammodytes: A. tobianus, A. dubius, A. americanus and A. marinus" FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 82

  27. Molloy, J. (1967) "Irish Sprats and Sandeels", Irish Fisheries Investigations Series B, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division)
  28. Corbin, P.G. & Vati, V. (1949) "The post-larval sand eels (Ammodytidae) of the Celtic Sea and Plymouth area" J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 28(1):287-313.