Measures of parental attendance
- Parental attendance is the amount of time that one or both parents spent
at the nest site.
- For the Common Guillemot, at least one parent must be present to protect
the egg or chick from predation.
- Time at the colony can be spent at the breeding ledge or on a loafing ledge.
- Time away from the colony can be spent in flight, on surface activities, or
- Adults can return with or without fish.
- Chicks require 30-60g of fresh fish per day (Gaston and Jones 1998)
- Adult Guillemots require 440g of fresh fish per day during foraging.
(Gabrielsen 1994, quoted in Gaston and Jones 1998)
- Captive adults took up to 200g of fish at a meal, including individual fish up
to 113g. Normally consumed 55-65g per meal if fed regularly. Birds took 3 hours
to consume c.60g of fish (Golovkin 1963, quoted in Bradstreet & Brown 1985)
- Time spent diving (and therefore estimated energy expenditure) increases
in years of low food abundance (Uttley et al. 1994)
- It has been shown that parental attendance during chick rearing is a good
indicator of prey abundance. (Zador & Piatt 1999, etc).
- Parental atttendance / prey abundance relationship is consistent
throughout the range of the Common Guillemot.
- Shetland (Uttley et al. 1994, Monaghan et al. 1994)
- Cook Inlet, Alaska (Zador & Piatt 1999, etc, Harding et al. 2007)
- Newfoundland (Burger & Piatt 1990, Davoren & Montevecchi 2003, Wilhelm et al. 2008)
- North Sea (Wanless et al. 2005, Ashbrook et al. 2008)
- Extremely low levels of prey fish may cause both parents to leave the chick
unattended, leading to aggression from neighbouring breeding Guillemots.
(Ashbrook et al. 2008)
- Non-breeding or failed breeders still show alloparenting behaviour in
conditions of reduced prey abundance. (Ashbrook et al. 2008)
- Bird-minutes per hour (Zador & Piatt 1999). Also expressed as a percentage.
- What are the weights of provisioning adults?
- How does feeding affect an adult's flying ability?
- What is the time budget of an adult on a foraging trip?
- What factors influence an adult to leave the ledge?
- What factors influence an adult to return with a fish?
- Ashbrook, K., Wanless, S., Harris, M.P. & Hamer, K.C. (2008) "Hitting the buffers: conspecific aggression undermines benefits of colonial
breeding under adverse conditions" Biol. Lett. 4(6):630-633
- Wilhelm, Sabina I.; Walsh, Caroline J. & Storey, Anne E. (2008) "Time budgets of Common Murres vary in relation to inshore Capelin availability",
Condor 110 (2):316-325
- Harding, A.M.A, Piatt, J.F. & Schmutz, J.A. (2007) "Seabird behavior as an indicator of food supplies: sensitivity across the breeding season"
Mar Ecol Prog Ser 352: 269-274
- Harding, A.M.A., Piatt, J.F., Schmutz, J.A., Shultz, M., Van Pelt, T.I., Kettle, A.B., & Speckmann, S.G. (2007) "Prey density and the
behavioural flexibility of a marine predator: the common guillemot (Uria aalge)" Ecology 88(8):2024ï¿½2033
- Piatt, J.F., Harding, A.M.A., Shultz, M., Speckman, S.G., van Pelt, T.I., Drew, G.S., & Kettle, A.B. (2007) "Seabirds as indicators of marine
food supplies: Cairns revisited" Mar Ecol Prog Ser 352: 221-234
- Wanless, S., Harris, M.P., Redman, P., & Speakman, J.R. (2005) "Low energy values of fish as a probable
cause of a major seabird breeding failure in the North Sea" Mar Ecol Prog Ser 294:1-8
- Davoren, G.K., & Montevecchi, W.A. (2003) "Consequences of foraging trip duration on provisioning behaviour and
fledging condition of common murres Uria aalge" J. Avian Biol. 34, 44-53
- Österblom, H. & Olsson, O. (2002) "Changes in feeding behaviour and reproductive success in the Common Guillemot Uria aalge on the island of
Stora Karlsö" Ornis Svecica 12:53-62
- Barrett, R.T. (2001) "Attendance patterns of Common Guillemots Uria aalge and Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at colonies during continuous
daylight" Atlantic Seabirds 3(1):31-48
- Harris, M.P., Bull, J., & Wanless, S. (2000) "Common Guillemots Uria aalge successfully feed two chicks" Atlantic Seabirds 2(2):92-94
- Zador, S.G. & Piatt, J.F. (1999) "Time-budgets of common murres at a declining and increasing colony in Alaska" The Condor
- Monaghan, P., Walton, P., Wanless, S., Uttley, J.D., Burns, M.D. (1994) "Effects of prey abundance on the foraging behavior, diving efficiency
and time allocation of breeding guillemots (Uria aalge)" Ibis 136:214-222
- Uttley, J.D., Walton, P., Monaghan, P. & Austin, G. (1994) "The effects of food abundance on breeding performance and adult time budgets of
Guillemots (Uria aalge)" Ibis 136:205-213
- Hatchwell, B.J., Birkhead, T.R., Goodburn, S.F., Perrins, J.M. & Jones, S.E. (1992) "Chick diets and food intake of nestling Common Guillemots
Uria aalge: an inter-colony comparison" Seabird 14:15-20
- Burger, A.E. & Piatt, J.F. (1990) "Flexible time budgets in breeding common murres: buffers against variable prey abundance" Stud Avian Biol
- Cairns, D.K., Montevecchi, W.A., Birt-Friesen, V.L. & Macko, S.A. (1990) "Energy expenditures, activity budgets, and prey harvest of breeding
Common Murres" Stud Avian Biol 14:84-92
- Birkhead, T.R., Goodburn, S.F. & Hatchwell, B.J. (1986) "Feeding Ecology of Common Guillemot Chicks on Lundy" Annual Report of the Lundy Field
- Harris, M.P. & Wanless, S. (1986) "Time spent at the colony by male and female guillemots Uria aalge and Razorbills Alca torda" Bird Study