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Lesser Sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus)
Species - Fish - Ammodytidae
  • Sandeel (Ammodytidae)
  • Breeds February to April and September to November.

    • Behrens, J.W., Stahl, H.J., Steffensen, J.F. & Glud, R.N. (2007) "Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements" J. Exp. Biol. 210(6):1006-1014.
    • Behrens, J.W. & Steffensen, J.F. (2007) "The effect of hypoxia on behavioural and physiological aspects of lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus, 1785)" Mar Biol 150:1365-1377

    • Dalsgaard, J. & St. John, M. (2004) "Fatty acid biomarkers: validation of food web and trophic markers using 13C-labelled fatty acids in juvenile sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus)" Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61(9):1671-1680
    • Kaiser, M.J., Bergmann, M., Hinz, H., Galanidi, M., Shucksmith, R., Rees, E.I.S., Darbyshire, T. & Ramsay, K. (2004) "Demersal fish and epifauna associated with sandbank habitats" Estuarine, Coastal and shelf science 60(3):445-456
    • Lyngs, P. (2001) "Diet of Razorbill Alca torda chicks on Græsholmen, central Baltic Sea" Dansk Orn. Foren. Tidsskr. 95:69-74
    • Miller, P.J. & Loates, M.J. (1997) "Fish of Britain & Europe" Collins Pocket Guide, HarperCollins, London
    • O'Connell, M. & Fives, J.M. (1995) "The biology of the lesser sand-eel Ammodytes tobianus L. in the Galway Bay area" In Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (pp. 87-98). Royal Irish Academy.
    • Hatchwell, B.J., Birkhead, T.R., Goodburn, S.F., Perrins, J.M. & Jones, S.E. (1992) "Chick diets and food intake of nestling Common Guillemots Uria aalge: an inter-colony comparison" Seabird 14:15-20
    • Hatchwell, B.J. (1991) "The feeding ecology of young Guillemots Uria aalge on Skomer Island, Wales" Ibis 133(2):153-161
    • Birkhead, T.R., Goodburn, S.F. & Hatchwell, B.J. (1986) "Feeding Ecology of Common Guillemot Chicks on Lundy" Annual Report of the Lundy Field Society 1985 36:25-26
      Annual Report of the Lundy Field Society 1985 36
    • Townley, M. & King, P.E. (1980) "The marine fauna of Lundy - ichthyoplankton (fish plankton)" Rep Lundy Fld Soc 1979 30:49-55
      Annual Report of the Lundy Field Society 1979 30
    • Reay, P.J. (1973) "Some aspects of the biology of the sandeel Ammodytes tobianus L.. in Langstone Harbour, Hampshire" J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 53:325-346
    • Reay, P.J. (1972) "The Seasonal Pattern of Otolith Growth and its Application to Back-Calculation Studies in Ammodytes Tobianus L." Journal du Conseil 34(3):485-504.
    • Corbin, P.G. & Vati, V. (1949) "The post-larval sand eels (Ammodytidae) of the Celtic Sea and Plymouth area" J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 28(1):287-313.


    • Skomer
    • Lundy (51°11'N, 4°40'W), England
    • Bristol Channel
    • Celtic Sea
    • Wikipedia - Lesser sand eel Breeding, can vary to which race they are native, and usually happens from February to April, or from September through into November. Adult forms become mature in 1 to 2 years (8 cm+), and will live 7 years or more. It habitates from mid-tide level below to around 30m in inshore waters, that have clean and sandy bottoms. It is commonly found swimming in huge shoals that rapidly burrows in sand if alarmed. It is nocturnal, spending the day buried in the sand and emerging at dusk to feed.
    • Fishbase: Ammodytes tobianus Northeast Atlantic: Murmansk to Spain, including Iceland and the Baltic and the Mediterranean. Two distinct but often sympatric spawning groups exist in the area but have not been given subspecies status although spawning groups differ in mean vertebral number (autumn higher than spring), otolith structure, and probably habitats.
    • Google Scholar: Ammodytes tobianus