are risks to seabirds caused by human actions.
These can either be direct (where actions are deliberately taken against seabirds) or
indirect (where risks to seabirds are a side-effect of human actions).
Direct risks include hunting or egg collection.
Indirect risks include fisheries bycatch, introduced predators, oil pollution or
disturbance from leisure activities.
- McFarlane-Tranquilla, L.A., Montevecchi, W.A., Hedd, A., Fifield, D.A., Burke, C.M., Smith, P.A., Regular, P.M., Robertson, G.J., Gaston, A.J.
& Phillips, R.A. (2013) "Multiple-colony winter habitat use by murres Uria spp. in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean: implications for marine risk
assessment" Mar Ecol Prog Ser 472:287-303
- Hedd, A., Montevecchi, W.A., McFarlane-Tranquilla, L., Burke, C.M., Fifield, D.A., Robertson, G.J., Phillips, R.A, Gjerdrum, C. & Regular, P.M.
(2011) "Reducing uncertainty on the Grand Bank: tracking and vessel surveys indicate mortality risks for common murres in the North-West Atlantic"
Animal Conservation 14(6):630–641