Mutual Aid Amongst Birds
- 1. Competition is greatest between individuals of the same species as they are direct competitors for food and
- 2. Individuals of the same species will co-operate in ecosystems where are faced with common problems.
Links at this site...
- Kropotkin, P. (1902) "Mutual aid: a factor of evolution", William Heinemann, London.
- Darwin, C. (1859:1878) "The Origin of Species: by means of natural selection. sixth ed."
Links to other sites...