Human ecology
Mathematics education
Psychology of learning mathematics Notes
Notes - 16/2/00

Zone of proximal development

"... the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers." Zygotsky (1978, p.86)

Lev S. Vygotsky (1978) "Mind in society", Harvard UP, Cambridge
Edited by Michael Cole, Vera John-Steiner, Sylvia Scribner, Ellen Souberman


Part I. Basic theory and data

Part II. Educational Implications Internalization is the "internal reconstruction of an external operation." (p.56) Internalization consists of a series of transformations... Self and mutual as consequences of natural selection. Definitions of self and mutual reflexivity Internalization as an example of (mutual) reflexivity. Identification of reflexivity with internal uncertainty and with the internal perspective in psychology.

Sixth form subjects chosen by convergers and divergers.


Modern languages Mixed courses Classics Physical science Biology "The converger is the boys who is substantially better at the intelligence test than he is at the open-ended tests; the diverger is the reverse. In addition are the all-rounders , the boys who are more or less equally good (or bad) on both types of test. As a matter of convenience, I define 30 per cent of my usual schoolboy sample as convergers, 30 per cent as divergers, and leave the remaining 40 per cent in the middle as all-rounders." (Hudson, 1966, p.55)
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Created 22/3/00
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